Lifetime prevalence and adherence rate of cervical cancer screening among women living with HIV: A systematic review and meta-analysis


INTRODUCTION: Women living with HIV (WLWH) are more likely to develop cervical cancer. Screening and available healthcare can effectively reduce its incidence and mortality rates. We aimed to summarize the lifetime prevalence and adherence rate of cervical cancer screening among WLWH across low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), and high-income countries (HICs). METHODS: We systematically searched PubMed, Web of Science and Embase for studies published between database inception and 2 September 2022, without language or geographical restrictions. Those reporting the lifetime prevalence and/or adherence rate of cervical cancer screening among WLWH were included. Pooled estimates across LMICs and HICs were obtained using DerSimonian-Laird random-effects models. When the number of eligible studies was greater than 10, we further conducted stratified analyses by the World Health Organization (WHO) region, setting (rural vs. urban), investigation year, screening method, type of cervical cancer screening programme, age and education level. RESULTS: Among the 63 included articles, 26 provided data on lifetime prevalence, 24 on adherence rate and 13 on both. The pooled lifetime prevalence in LMICs was 30.2% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 21.0–41.3), compared to 92.4% in HICs (95% CI: 89.6–94.6). The pooled adherence rate was 20.1% in LMICs (95% CI: 16.4–24.3) and 59.5% in HICs (95% CI: 51.2–67.2). DISCUSSION: There was a large gap in cervical cancer screening among WLWH between LMICs and HICs. Further analysis found that those in LMICs had higher lifetime prevalence in subgroups with urban settings, with older age and with higher education levels; and those in HICs had higher adherence in subgroups with younger age and with higher education levels. CONCLUSIONS: Cervical cancer screening among WLWH falls considerably short of the WHO’s goal. There should be continuous efforts to further increase screening among these women, especially those residing in the rural areas of LMICs and with lower education levels.


Gao X, Zhang W, Sun J, Adeloye D, Jin H, Rudan I, Song P, Jin M




  • Epidemiology and Determinants of Health
    • Epidemiology
  • Population(s)
    • Women
    • General HIV+ population
  • Testing
    • Testing
  • Co-morbidities
    • Cancer


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