Lights and shadows of microbiota modulation and cardiovascular risk in HIV patients
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is associated with premature aging and the development of aging-related comorbidities, such as cardiovascular disease (CVD). Gut microbiota (GM) disturbance is involved in these comorbidities and there is currently interest in strategies focused on modulating GM composition and/or functionality. Scientific evidence based on well-designed clinical trials is needed to support the use of prebiotics, probiotics, symbiotics, and fecal transplantation (FT) to modify the GM and reduce the incidence of CVD in HIV-infected patients. We reviewed the data obtained from three clinical trials focused on prebiotics, 25 trials using probiotics, six using symbiotics, and four using FT. None of the trials investigated whether these compounds could reduce CVD in HIV patients. The huge variability observed in the type of compound as well as the dose and duration of administration makes it difficult to adopt general recommendations and raise serious questions about their application in clinical practice.
Villoslada-Blanco P, Pérez-Matute P, Oteo JA
- General HIV+ population