Magnitude and associated factors of urinary tract infections among adults living with HIV in Ethiopia—Systematic review and meta-analysis


BACKGROUND: Urinary tract infection is a major public health problem in developing countries among immunocompromized populations where there are limited health-care services. People living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are more likely to develop urinary tract infections (UTI) due to the suppression of their immunity. There is no single representative figure as well as the presence of significant heterogeneity among studies conducted on people living with HIV in Ethiopia. Hence, this study tried to pool the magnitude of UTI among people living with HIV in Ethiopia. METHOD: To find relevant studies, researchers looked through Web of Science, Science Direct, PubMed, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, Google Scholar, and Worldwide Science. The I2 statistic was used to examine for heterogeneity among the studies that were included. To evaluate the pooled effect size across studies, a random-effects model was used. The presence of publication bias was determined using a funnel plot and Egger’s regression test. STATATM version 14.0 software was used for all statistical analyses. RESULTS: A total of 7 studies with 2257 participants were included in this meta-analysis. UTI was shown to be prevalent in 12.8% (95% CI: 10.8–14.79, I2 = 50.7%) of HIV patients. Being male (0.35, 95% CI:0.14, 1.02), rural residents(OR:1.41,95% CI: 0.85, 2.34), no history of catheterization (OR: 0.35, 95% CI: 0.06, 1.85), had no history of DM (OR:0.84, 95% CI:0.12, 0.597) and having CD4 count greater than 200 (OR:0.36 95% CI: 0.06, 2.35) were the factors which were the associated factors assessed and having association with UTI among people living with HIV but not statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: In Ethiopia, one in every eight HIV-positive people is at risk of acquiring UTI. Regardless, we looked for a link between sex, residency, CD4, catheterization history, and DM and UTI, but there was none. To avoid this phenomina, every HIV patient should have a UTI examination in every follow-up.


Birhanu MY, Habtegiorgis SD, Gietaneh W, Alemu S, Tsegaye TB, Bekele GM, Abebaw A, Dilnessa T, Elmneh HT, Amha H, Bekele Ketema D, Gebre Anto T, Desta M, Jemberie SS




  • Epidemiology and Determinants of Health
    • Epidemiology
  • Population(s)
    • General HIV+ population
  • Co-morbidities
    • Other


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