Major drug resistance mutations on reverse transcriptase gene in human immunodeficiency virus type-1 in Indonesia: A systematic review


PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The prevalence of HIV-1 in Indonesia is on a concerning upward trajectory, with a concurrent rise in the development of drug-resistant strains, challenging the efficacy of antiretroviral therapy (ART). Many mutations have been found in the pol gene that makes HIV resistant to ART. We aim to review the major drug resistance mutations (DRMs) of reverse transcriptase (RT) of pol gene in HIV-1 cases in Indonesia. RECENT FINDINGS: A total of eleven articles reporting DRMs in HIV-1 subjects from various regions between 2015–2020 in Indonesia are included. The prevalence of major DRMs on the RT gene in studies included varies from 3.4% to 34%. The CRF01_AE subtype stands out as the predominant variant. Notably, the prevalence of major DRMs in ART-experienced individuals is 22.1%, while ART-naA_ve individuals show a lower rate of 4.4%. Among the RT gene mutations, M184I/V emerges as the most prevalent (10.5%) within the nucleos(t)ide reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTI) group, while K103N leads among the non-NRTI (NNRTI) group, with a frequency of 6.4%. Regionally, North Sulawesi records the highest prevalence of major DRMs in the RT gene at 21.1%, whereas Riau and Central Papua exhibit the lowest rates at 3.4%. Significant variations in drug resistance mutations within the RT gene across Indonesian regions highlight the importance of closely monitoring and evaluating the effectiveness of current antiretroviral therapy (ART) regimens. Considerably, more studies are needed to understand better and overcome the emergence of DRMs on HIV-1 patients in Indonesia.


Nurjannah, Jayanti S, Tanoerahardjo FS, Al Musyahadah US, Sukowati CHC, Massi MN




  • Epidemiology and Determinants of Health
    • Epidemiology
  • Population(s)
    • General HIV+ population
  • Prevention, Engagement and Care Cascade
    • Engagement and Care Cascade
  • Engagement and Care Cascade
    • Treatment


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