Material and social incentives to participation in behavioral interventions: A meta-analysis of gender disparities in enrollment and retention in experimental human immunodeficiency virus prevention interventions.


Objective: A meta-analysis was conducted to test theoretical hypotheses about the predictors of enrollment and completion of condom-use-promotion interventions among men and women. Design: A meta-analysis summarized research reports of the efficacy of experimental interventions on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention. Main Outcome Measures: The outcome measure consisted of (a) a measure of participation, obtained by subtracting the actual number of participants from the number of the invited people, and (b) a measure of retention was obtained by subtracting the number of participants who completed the intervention from the number of commencers. Results: Experimental interventions providing instrumental and financial resources (e.g., payments) increased initiation and retention more among predominantly male samples, whereas experimental interventions using group formats increased initiation and retention more among predominantly female samples. These patterns remained while controlling for past condom use, other HIV-risk behaviors, and demographics associated with gender composition. Conclusion: People seek out HIV-prevention interventions to fulfill gender-specific needs, and these differences must be taken into account in the design of HIV-prevention interventions. copyright 2009 American Psychological Association


Durantini MR, AlbarracĂ­n D.




  • Determinants of Health
    • Other
  • Population(s)
    • Men who have sex with men
    • Women
    • Heterosexual men
  • Prevention
    • Sexual risk behaviour


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