Meeting the reproductive health needs of female key populations affected by HIV in low- and middle-income countries: A review of the evidence


Female sex workers and other women at high risk of acquiring HIV have the right to sexual and reproductive health, including the right to determine the number and timing of pregnancies. We conducted a literature review to examine the data that exist regarding the family planning and reproductive health needs of female key populations, the underlying determinants of these populations’ vulnerability to poor reproductive health outcomes, and the obstacles they face in accessing high-quality reproductive health services. Findings indicate that female key populations experience high rates of unmet need for family planning and safer conception services, unintended pregnancies, sexual violence, and abortion, and that they practice inconsistent condom use. Restrictive policy environments, stigma and discrimination in health care settings, gender inequality, and economic marginalization restrict access to services and undermine the ability to safely achieve reproductive intentions. We offer recommendations for structural, health system, community, and individual-level interventions that can mitigate the effects of these barriers and improve reproductive health outcomes


Ippoliti NB, Nanda G, Wilcher R




  • Determinants of Health
    • Income
    • Stigma/discrimination
    • Abuse
  • Population(s)
    • Women
    • Sex workers
  • Prevention
    • Sexual risk behaviour
  • Substance Use
    • Alcohol
    • Nonmedicinal drugs
  • Health Systems
    • Governance arrangements
    • Delivery arrangements


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