Meta-analysis: The association between HIV infection and extrapulmonary tuberculosis


BACKGROUND: Extrapulmonary tuberculosis has been an AIDS-defining condition. Individual studies that highlight the association between HIV and extrapulmonary TB are available. Our objectives were to synthesis evidence on the association between extrapulmonary tuberculosis and HIV and to explore the effective preventive measures of these two diseases. METHODS: This is a meta-analysis of observational studies reporting effect estimates on how HIV is associated with extrapulmonary tuberculosis. We searched for the eligible studies in the electronic databases using search terms related to HIV and extrapulmonary tuberculosis. Where possible, we estimated the summary odds ratios using random effects meta-analysis. We stratified analysis by the type of study design. We assessed heterogeneity of effect estimates within each group of studies was assessed using I (2) test. RESULTS: Nineteen studies (7 case control studies and 12 cohort studies) were identified for the present study. The pooled analysis shows a significant association between HIV and extrapulmonary tuberculosis (summary odds ratio: 1.3; 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.05-1.6; I (2): 0 %). In a subgroup analysis with two studies, a significant association was found between CD4+ count less than 100 and the incidence of extrapulmonary tuberculosis (summary OR: 1.31; 95 % CI 1.02-1.68; I (2): 0 %). CONCLUSIONS: Findings show evidence on the association between extrapulmonary tuberculosis and HIV, based on case control studies. Further studies to understand the mechanisms of interaction of the two pathogens are recommended


Naing C, Mak JW, Maung M, Wong SF, Kassim AI.




  • Population(s)
    • Children or Youth (less than 18 years old)
    • General HIV- population
  • Testing
    • Testing
  • Co-infections
    • Tuberculosis
    • Other


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