Molecular role of HIV-1 human receptors (CCL5-CCR5 Axis) in neuroAIDS: A systematic review


Chronic HIV-1 infection can cause neurological illness, also known as HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). The elevated level of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, such as C-C Chemokine Ligand 5 (CCL5/RANTES), is one of the ways of causing HIV-1-mediated neuroinflammation. C-C Chemokine Receptor 5 (CCR5) is the main coreceptor for viral entry into host cells and for mediating induction of CCL5/RANTES. CCR5 and CCL5 are part of a correlated axis of immune pathways used for effective protection against the HIV-1 virus. The purpose of this paper was to review the literary knowledge about the immunopathological relationship between this immune complex and neuroAIDS. A systematic review of the literature was conducted based on the selection and search of articles, available in English, Spanish, or Portuguese in the time frame of 1990-2022, of primary and secondary types in the PUBMED, Science Direct, SciELO, and LILACS databases through descriptors (MeSH) together with “AND”: “CCR5”; “CCL5”; “neurological manifestations”; or “HIV”. The methodological quality of the articles was assessed using the JBI Checklists and the PRISMA 2020 writing guidelines were followed. A total of 36 articles were included in the final composition of the review. The main cells of the CNS affected by neuroAIDS are: neurons; microglia; astrocytes; and oligodendrocytes. Molecular devices and their associations with cellular injuries have been described from the entry of the virus into the host’s CNS cell to the generation of mental disorders. Furthermore, divergent results were found about the levels of CCL5/RANTES secretion and the generation of immunopathogenesis, while all condensed research for CCR5 indicated that elevation of this receptor causes more neurodegenerative manifestations. Therefore, new therapeutic and interventional strategies can be conditioned on the immunological direction proposed in this review for the disease.


Silva MJA, Marinho RL, Rodrigues YC, Brasil TP, Dos Santos PAS, Silva CS, Sardinha DM, Lima KVB, Lima LNGC




  • Population(s)
    • General HIV+ population
  • Mental Health
    • Neurocognitive disorders


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