Multimodal approach to neurocognitive function in people living with HIV in the cART era: A comprehensive review


Combination antiretroviral treatment (cART) has revolutionized the management of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and has markedly improved the disease burden and life expectancy of people living with HIV. HIV enters the central nervous system (CNS) early in the course of infection, establishes latency, and produces a pro-inflammatory milieu that may affect cognitive functions, even in the cART era. Whereas severe forms of neurocognitive impairment (NCI) such as HIV-associated dementia have declined over the last decades, milder forms have become more prevalent, are commonly multifactorial, and are associated with comorbidity burdens, mental health, cART neurotoxicity, and ageing. Since 2007, the Frascati criteria have been used to characterize and classify HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) into three stages, namely asymptomatic neurocognitive impairment (ANI), mild neurocognitive disorder (MND), and HIV-associated dementia (HAD). These criteria are based on a comprehensive neuropsychological assessment that presupposes the availability of validated, demographically adjusted, and normative population data. Novel neuroimaging modalities and biomarkers have been proposed in order to complement NCI assessments, elucidate neuropathogenic mechanisms, and support HIV-associated NCI diagnosis, monitoring, and prognosis. By integrating neuropsychological assessments with biomarkers and neuroimaging into a holistic care approach, clinicians can enhance diagnostic accuracy, prognosis, and patient outcomes. This review interrogates the value of these modes of assessment and proposes a unified approach to NCI diagnosis.


Moschopoulos CD, Stanitsa E, Protopapas K, Kavatha D, Papageorgiou SG, Antoniadou A, Papadopoulos A




  • Population(s)
    • General HIV+ population
  • Mental Health
    • Neurocognitive disorders
  • Health Systems
    • Delivery arrangements


Abstract/Full paper

Email 1 selected articles

Email 1 selected articles

Error! The email wasn't sent. Please try again.

Your email has been sent!