Multimodality imaging in HIV-associated cardiovascular complications: A comprehensive review


Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is a leading cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. The introduction of antiretroviral therapy (ART) has significantly reduced the risk of developing acquired immune deficiency syndrome and increased life expectancy, approaching that of the general population. However, people living with HIV have a substantially increased risk of cardiovascular diseases despite long-term viral suppression using ART. HIV-associated cardiovascular complications encompass a broad spectrum of diseases that involve the myocardium, pericardium, coronary arteries, valves, and systemic and pulmonary vasculature. Traditional risk stratification tools do not accurately predict cardiovascular risk in this population. Multimodality imaging plays an essential role in the evaluation of various HIV-related cardiovascular complications. Here, we emphasize the role of multimodality imaging in establishing the diagnosis and aetiopathogenesis of various cardiovascular manifestations related to chronic HIV disease. This review also provides a critical appraisal of contemporary data and illustrative cases.


Kumar P, Arendt C, Martin S, Al Soufi S, DeLeuw P, Nagel E, Puntmann VO




  • Population(s)
    • General HIV+ population
  • Co-morbidities
    • Cardiovascular


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