Natural history of hepatitis C virus infection in HIV-infected individuals and the impact of HIV in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy: A meta-analysis


Objectives: To estimate stage-specific transition probabilities in individuals coinfected with HIV and hepatitis C virus (HCV), to examine the effect of covariates on these rates, and to investigate the effect of HIV on HCV-related cirrhosis in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Design: Systematic review of natural history studies among HCV-infected individuals. Methods: Markov maximum likelihood estimation method was used to estimate stage-specific transition probabilities. A meta-analysis was performed to obtain pooled transition probabilities, and a meta-regression to investigate the impact of covariates on these rates. Risk of cirrhosis between individuals monoinfected with HCV and coinfected with HIV/HCV were compared by HAART status. Results: The estimated mean (95% confidence intervals) annual transition probabilities of 3567 individuals coinfected with HIV/HCV (n = 17 studies) were as follows: fibrosis stage (F) F0 -> F1 0.122 (0.098-0.153); F1 -> F2 0.115 (0.095-0.140); F2 -> F3 0.124 (0.097-0.159); and F3 -> F4 0.115 (0.098-0.135) units/year. The prevalence of cirrhosis after 20 and 30 years of HCV infection was 21% (16-28%) and 49% (40-59%), respectively. Longer duration of HCV infection was significantly associated with slower rate of fibrosis progression. The overall rate ratio of cirrhosis between individuals coinfected with HIV/HCV and monoinfected with HCV (n = 27 studies) was 2.1 (1.5-3.0), 2.5 (1.8-3.4) in the non-HAART group, and 1.7 (1.1 -2.8) in the HAART group. Conclusion: The rate of fibrosis progression among individuals coinfected with HIV/ HCV appears constant. Our results confirm that chronic hepatitis C outcomes are worse among coinfected individuals. Over the period studied, HAART did not appear to fully correct the adverse effect of HIV infection on HCV prognosis.


Thein HH, Yi Q, Dore GJ, Krahn MD.




  • Population(s)
    • General HIV+ population
  • Co-infections
    • Hepatitis B, C
  • Co-morbidities
    • Other


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