Nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor resistance and the role of the second-generation agents


OBJECTIVE: To review the current state of nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) resistance, discuss the promising role of second-generation NNRTIs, and provide insight into their clinical utility. DATA SOURCES: Articles were identified through searches of MEDLINE (May 2000-August 2009) and International Pharmaceutical Abstracts (May 1998-August 2009), using the key words etravirine, rilpivirine, TMC125, TMC278, diarylpyrimidine, NNRTI, and resistance. STUDY SELECTION AND DATA EXTRACTION: Clinical trials, resistance studies, and pharmacokinetic data were selected for review. DATA SYNTHESIS: NNRTIs are an integral class of antiretroviral agents utilized for the treatment of HIV-1 infection. These agents have become preferred therapy options for treatment-naive individuals per treatment guideline recommendations and have gained increased popularity over protease inhibitor-based antiretroviral therapy. However, available NNRTIs possess inherent characteristics, such as low genetic barrier to resistance and high degree of cross-resistance, that limit their use in HIV therapy. Due to the growing utilization of this highly efficacious antiretroviral class and the increased capability for resistance development, many HIV-infected patients have experienced treatment failure of an NNRTI. Cross-resistance makes other first-generation NNRTI agents unavailable for future use. Etravirine and rilpivirine are second-generation NNRTIs that are not significantly hampered by cross-resistance and possess potent antiretroviral activity against current NNRTI-resistant viral strains. These agents provide new and important therapy options for many HIV-infected patients. CONCLUSIONS: NNRTI resistance is an increasing problem that may impair the chances for therapeutic success in HIV-infected patients. Novel agents such as etravirine and rilpivirine provide new, sensitive options for patients and significantly improve the rate of virologic suppression when appropriately applied.


Adams J, Patel N, Mankaryous N, Tadros M, Miller CD.




  • Population(s)
    • Other
  • Engagement and Care Cascade
    • Treatment


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