Organization of care for persons with HIV-infection: A systematic review
The objective of this systematic review was to examine the effectiveness of the organization of care: case management, multidisciplinary care, multi-faceted treatment, hours of service, outreach programs and health information systems on medical, immunological, virological, psychosocial and economic outcomes for persons living with HIV/AIDS. We searched PubMed (MEDLINE) and 10 other electronic databases from 1 January 1980 to April, 2012 for both experimental and controlled observational studies. Thirty-three studies met the inclusion criteria. Eleven studies were randomized controlled trials (RCTs), three of which were conducted in low-middle income settings. Patient characteristics, study design, organization measures and outcomes data were abstracted independently by two reviewers from all studies. A risk of bias tool was applied to RCTs and a separate tool was used to assess the quality of observational studies. This review concludes that case management interventions were most consistently associated with improvements in immunological outcomes but case management demonstrates no clear association with other outcome measures. The same mixed results were also identified for multidisciplinary and multi-faceted care interventions. Eight studies with an outreach intervention were identified and demonstrated improvements or non-inferiority with respect to mortality, receipt of antiretroviral medications, immunological outcomes, improvements in healthcare utilization and lower reported healthcare costs when compared to usual care. Of the interventions examined in this review, sustained in-person case management and outreach interventions were most consistently associated with improved medical and economic outcomes, in particular antiretroviral prescribing, immunological outcomes and healthcare utilization. No firm conclusions can be reached about the impact of any one intervention on patient mortality.
Handford CD, Tynan AM, Agha A, Rzeznikiewiz D, Glazier RH.
- General HIV+ population
- Health Systems
- Delivery arrangements