Osteoporosis and vitamin D deficiency in HIV-positive patients
Objective: To review the epidemiology and pathophysiology of osteoporosis in patients with HIV infection and discuss vitamin D deficiency and the treatment of HIV-positive patients with osteoporosis. Data Sources: A search of PubMed (1980-June 2011) was conducted using the terms osteoporosis, HIV, vitamin D deficiency, and treatment. Study Selection and Data Extraction: Epidemiologic studies, clinical trials, and meta-analyses published in English were included. A manual review of the bibliographies of available literature was conducted and relevant articles were reviewed for inclusion. Data Synthesis: Patients with HIV infection are living longer with the use of potent antiretroviral therapy (ART) and are at increased risk for osteoporosis. Several studies have shown that HIV infection can affect bone health and increase the risk for osteoporosis. In addition, ART, and tenofovir in particular, may affect bone turnover. Studies and meta-analyses have shown an increased prevalence of osteopenia and osteoporosis in HIV-positive patients compared to noninfected controls. Recent reports also show increased prevalence of fractures and low vitamin D concentrations in HIV-positive patients. Osteoporosis treatments used in patients with HIV infection are similar to treatments for noninfected patients. HIV-positive patients should be monitored and treated to prevent the progression and complications of osteoporosis. Conclusions: HIV-positive patients are at increased risk for osteoporosis and vitamin D deficiency due to disease and treatment influences on bone health. These patients should be identified and treated to prevent the morbidity and mortality associated with osteoporosis.
Segarra-Newnham M, Soffler SL.
- Epidemiology and Determinants of Health
- General HIV+ population
- Engagement and Care Cascade
- Age related disorders