Patterns of human immunodeficiency virus drug resistance mutations in people living with human immunodeficiency virus in India: A scoping review


The human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) epidemic still exists as a major global public health burden, especially in the middle- and low-income countries. Antiretroviral therapy (ART) remains a sole option to reduce the mortality and morbidity associated with this disease as no approved vaccine candidates are available. About 67% of the people living with HIV (PLHIV) have received the ART in 2019 worldwide. As a consequence of increased ART regimes, the prevalence of drug resistance mutations (DRM) also has been escalating and it would become a significant barrier in achieving the United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS goal of eliminating HIV by 2030. So far, nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTI), non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTI), and protease inhibitor-(PI) associated DRM have been reported across the globe with a considerable escalation in the annual prevalence rate of pretreatment NNRTI DRM. Conversely, NRTI-associated DRM is still under 5%, with a few scattered reports of significant increase from few countries such as southern and eastern Africa. Likewise, in India, the propositions of NRTI and NNRTI-associated DRM have increased since the commencement of the nationwide ART program in 2004. In agreement to the global trend, M1841/V, a type of NNRTI, remains as a dominant DRM among PLHIV. In this review, we tried to collate various mechanisms of DRM in PLHIV. In addition, patterns of HIV DRM in India and their future challenges on drug-related mutations have been discussed.


Balaji S, Madhumathi J, Bhargava A, Singh T, Mahajan N, Ambalkar D, Aggarwal S




  • Population(s)
    • General HIV+ population
  • Prevention, Engagement and Care Cascade
    • Engagement and Care Cascade
  • Engagement and Care Cascade
    • Treatment


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