Pre-Exposure prophylaxis care continuum, barriers, and facilitators among black men who have sex with men in the United States: A systematic review and meta-analysis


Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) represents a viable HIV prevention tool for black men who have sex with men (BMSM). However, aggregated evidence regarding the presentations and determinants of the PrEP continuum (e.g., awareness, willingness, intention, uptake and adherence) remains absent to empirically inform future intervention efforts. We meta-analytically summarized the prevalence and qualitatively synthesized key barriers/facilitators of the stages of the PrEP continuum among a pooled sample of 42,870 BMSM aggregated from 56 published studies. Our random-effect models indicated a pooled prevalence of PrEP awareness (50.8%, 95% CI: 43.6–58.0%, willingness/intention (58.2%, 95% CI: 52.0–68.1%) and uptake (15.5%, 95% CI: 12.8–18.2%). Qualitative summary revealed that perception of HIV risk, intersectional/PrEP-related stigma and medical mistrust were among the most quoted factors that influence PrEP use. BMSM remain underrepresented in key stages of the PrEP continuum. Futures interventions are continuously needed to target multilevel barriers/facilitators to enhance the PrEP continuum among BMSM.


Russ S, Zhang C, Liu Y




  • Determinants of Health
    • Health services
    • Stigma/discrimination
  • Population(s)
    • Men who have sex with men
    • Ethnoracial communities
  • Prevention
    • Biomedical interventions


Abstract/Full paper

Email 1 selected articles

Email 1 selected articles

Error! The email wasn't sent. Please try again.

Your email has been sent!