Pre-exposure prophylaxis care continuum for HIV risk populations: An umbrella review of systematic reviews and meta-analyses


Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is an effective biomedical strategy for HIV prevention. This umbrella review is aimed at providing a comprehensive summary of the current status of each stage of the PrEP care cascade. A systematic literature search was conducted in PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane. Additionally, a Measurement Tool to Assess Systematic Reviews 2 (AMSTAR-2) tool and Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) checklist were used to evaluate their methodological and reporting quality, respectively. A total of 30 systematic reviews met the inclusion criteria. According to the results of methodological quality assessment, 3 reviews were rated as low, while 27 as critically low. Furthermore, the results of the reporting quality evaluation revealed a mean score of 23.03 for the included reviews. Across all the reviews, awareness of PrEP was generally moderate in all populations, and the acceptability was even higher compared with awareness. Unfortunately, the PrEP uptake among different groups was even less optimal, although the adherence was almost above moderate, and several barriers that hindered the utilization of PrEP were identified, and the most common are as follows: cost, stigma, lack of knowledge, mistrust, low risk perception, and more. Although PrEP has proven to be an effective prevention method to date, the promotion of PrEP failed to achieve the anticipated outcome. To reinforce the generalization of and use of PrEP, and effectively control HIV transmission, it is urgent to identify the underlying causes of low uptake rates so that efficient interventions can be implemented.


Jin G, Shi H, Du J, Guo H, Yuan G, Yang H, Zhu Z, Zhang J, Zhang K, Zhang X, Lu X, Xu W, Wang S, Hao J, Sun Y, Su P, Zhang Z




  • Epidemiology and Determinants of Health
    • Determinants of Health
  • Determinants of Health
    • Income
    • Education
    • Health services
    • Stigma/discrimination
  • Population(s)
    • Men who have sex with men
    • Women
    • Transgender communities
    • People who use drugs
    • General HIV- population
  • Prevention, Engagement and Care Cascade
    • Prevention
  • Prevention
    • Biomedical interventions


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