Pre-exposure prophylaxis uptake, adherence, and persistence: A narrative review of interventions in the U.S


Since 2012, HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) has been available to prevent HIV transmission; yet, uptake, adherence, and persistence to PrEP have been suboptimal. This narrative review examines the latest interventions and programs to improve all 3 stages of PrEP adherence and reviews ongoing studies to promote effective PrEP use. From 2017 to 2020, a total of 20 studies analyzed different individual- and structural-level approaches to increase PrEP adherence, including behavior change interventions, technology-based interventions (e.g., short message service messages and mobile applications), and alternate delivery strategies (e.g., pharmacy-based PrEP, integration with other services, and home delivery). Most published interventions involved men who have sex with men, although 3 assessed women (2 transgender, 1 cisgender). Randomized, controlled data support 3 behavioral change interventions and 1 technology-based intervention. Alternate delivery strategies seem promising, although more robust study designs are generally needed. In addition, data on the alignment of ongoing HIV risk and PrEP persistence (i.e., prevention-effective adherence) were limited. The authors also identified 20 ongoing studies that are promoting PrEP adherence. Future work should be inclusive of all at-risk groups in the U.S., including African American and Latinx heterosexual populations and people who inject drugs. Proven and promising approaches may work well in combination and may also need to be adapted with the introduction of long-acting pre-exposure prophylaxis formulations. Collectively, this body of work indicates considerable progress toward understanding the role PrEP adherence will play in Ending the HIV Epidemic in the U.S. that will be bolstered by the outcomes of ongoing trials.


Garrison LE, Haberer JE




  • Population(s)
    • General HIV- population
  • Prevention, Engagement and Care Cascade
    • Engagement and Care Cascade
    • Prevention
  • Engagement and Care Cascade
    • Treatment
  • Prevention
    • Biomedical interventions
  • Health Systems
    • Delivery arrangements


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