Predictors of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in primary care among adults living in developed countries: A systematic review


BACKGROUND: Early diagnosis of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is important because antiretroviral therapies are more effective if infected individuals are diagnosed early. Diagnosis of HIV relies on laboratory testing and determining the demographic and clinical characteristics of undiagnosed HIV-infected patients may be useful in identifying patients for testing. This systematic review aims to identify characteristics of HIV-infected adults prior to diagnosis that could be used in a prediction model for early detection of patients for HIV testing in UK primary care. METHODS: The population of interest was adults aged >/= 18 years in developed countries. The exposures were demographic, socio-economic or clinical characteristics associated with the outcome, laboratory confirmed HIV/AIDS infection. Observational studies with a comparator group were included in the systematic review. Electronic searches for articles from January 1995 to April 2016 were conducted on online databases of EMBASE, MEDLINE, The Cochrane Library and grey literature. Two reviewers selected studies for inclusion. A checklist was developed for quality assessment, and a data extraction form was created to collate data from selected studies. RESULTS: Full-text screening of 429 articles identified 17 cohort and case-control studies, from 26,819 retrieved articles. Demographic and socio-economic characteristics associated with HIV infection included age, gender and measures of deprivation. Lifestyle choices identified were drug use, binge-drinking, number of lifetime partners and having a partner with risky behaviour. Eighteen clinical features and comorbid conditions identified in this systematic review are included in the 51 conditions listed in the British HIV Association guidelines. Additional clinical features and comorbid conditions identified but not specified in the guidelines included hyperlipidemia, hypertension, minor trauma and diabetes. CONCLUSION: This systematic review consolidates existing scientific evidence on characteristics of HIV-infected individuals that could be used to inform decision making in prognostic model development. Further exploration of availability of some of the demographic and behavioural predictors of HIV, such as ethnicity, number of lifetime partners and partner characteristics, in primary care records will be required to determine whether they can be applied in the prediction model


Rumbwere Dube BN, Marshall TP, Ryan RP, Omonijo M




  • Epidemiology and Determinants of Health
    • Epidemiology
  • Determinants of Health
    • Housing
    • Employment
    • Income
    • Education
  • Population(s)
    • Men who have sex with men
    • People who use drugs
    • Ethnoracial communities
    • General HIV+ population
  • Prevention
    • Sexual risk behaviour
  • Substance Use
    • Alcohol
    • Nonmedicinal drugs
    • Tobacco
  • Mental Health
    • Neurocognitive disorders
  • Co-infections
    • Hepatitis B, C
    • Chlamydia
    • Gonorrhea
    • Syphilis
  • Co-morbidities
    • Cancer
    • Other


Abstract/Full paper

Email 1 selected articles

Email 1 selected articles

Error! The email wasn't sent. Please try again.

Your email has been sent!