Preferences for pre-exposure prophylaxis for HIV: A systematic review of discrete choice experiments


BACKGROUND: We aimed to systematically review the health preference literature using discrete choice experiments (DCEs), an attribute-based stated preference method, to investigate patient preferences for HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP). METHODS: A search in PubMed, Scopus, CINAHL, and Embase was conducted on July 1, 2021, and updated on November 3, 2021. We used two concepts to create our search strategy: (1) discrete choice experiments/conjoint analysis/best-worst scaling, and (2) HIV PrEP.The study is registered in PROSPERO (CRD42021267026). FINDINGS: In total, 1060 studies were identified, and 18 were included in the analysis. Various attributes were examined, including dosing regimen, type of PrEP products, side effects, other side benefits, cost, effectiveness, dispensing venue, and additional support services. Dosing frequency, cost, the effectiveness of PrEP, dispensing venue, and side effects were the most common attributes examined in DCEs. Despite significant heterogeneity in preferences across subpopulations, overall, the most important attributes were cost (28%, 5/18), effectiveness (28%, 5/18) followed by dosing frequency (17%, 3/18). INTERPRETATION: Notably, in studies where all of these three attributes were examined, some individuals would trade effectiveness for cost or vice versa. Ensuring PrEP is low cost or free, widely disseminating information of its effectiveness and advancements in reducing dosing frequency could accelerate the uptake of PrEP for those who would benefit from PrEP the most.


Wulandari LPL, He SY, Fairley CK, Bavinton BR, Marie-Schmidt H, Wiseman V, Guy R, Tang W, Zhang L, Ong JJ




  • Population(s)
    • General HIV- population
  • Prevention, Engagement and Care Cascade
    • Prevention
  • Prevention
    • Biomedical interventions


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