Prevalence and factors associated with hypertension among peoples living with HIV in East Africa, a systematic review and meta-analysis



In recent years, improved access to effective antiretroviral therapy has meant that people living with human immune virus are living longer than before. The burden of non-communicable diseases particularly, hypertension parallels with the increase in age. Although hypertension screening is thought to be an effective indicator of overall health status and paves the way for early interventions in peoples living with human immune virus, the exact prevalence of hypertension in this population remained unknown. We aimed to report the prevalence of hypertension and examine the factors associated with hypertension among people living with human immune virus in East Africa.


In this systematic review and meta-analysis, we searched PubMed, Science Direct, Scopus, Cochrane library, and Google Scholar databases for studies published until January 1, 2023. The search period was from January 10/2023, to February 10/ 2023. Random-effect models were used to calculate the pooled prevalence of hypertension. Subgroup analyses were conducted to explore potential heterogeneity. The Funnel plot and Egger’s test were used to assess publication bias.


A total of 15 studies with 10,916 individuals were included in the present meta-analysis. The pooled prevalence of hypertension among people living with human immune virus was 19.75% (95% CI: 16.07%-23.42%). The prevalence of hypertension was not differed between studies conducted 2014- 2019 and, studies conducted 2020–2022. The prevalence of hypertension was lowest in Ethiopia (16.13%) and highest in Tanzania (26.76%). Alcohol consumption (Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR): 3.39, 95% CI: 2.35–4.43), diabetes (AOR: 2.64, 95% CI: 1.89–3.39), longer duration of HIV (AOR: 1.72, 95% CI: 1.15–2.3), male sex (AOR: 1.62, 95% CI: 1.43–1.8), obesity (AOR: 2.89, 95% CI: 1.94–3.84), and older age (AOR: 2.25, 95% CI: 2.0–2.5), were the factors associated with the presence of hypertension in people living with human immune virus.


Our study shows that one in five peoples living with human immune virus have hypertension causing symptoms and impairment, therefore requiring treatment. Designing effective health screening and hypertension management intervention programs helps to prevent the occurrence of hypertension and promotes peoples’ overall quality of life.


Tegegne KD, Adela GA, Kassie GA, Mengstie MA, Seid MA, Zemene MA, Feleke SF, Dejenie TA, Abebe EC, Anley DT, Dessie AM, Gesese MM, Yimer N, Gebeyehu NA




  • Epidemiology and Determinants of Health
    • Epidemiology
  • Population(s)
    • General HIV+ population
  • Co-morbidities
    • Other


Abstract/Full paper

Email 1 selected articles

Email 1 selected articles

Error! The email wasn't sent. Please try again.

Your email has been sent!