Prevalence, awareness, treatment, control of hypertension, and availability of hypertension services for patients living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA): A systematic review and meta-analysis


Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) is faced with a dual burden of hypertension and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). In this review we sought to determine the prevalence, awareness, and control of hypertension among persons living with HIV (PLHIV), and the availability of hypertension services at the HIV care points in SSA. We searched the PubMed, Embase, Scopus, Cochrane library, Global index Medicus, African Journal online, and WHO Institutional Repository for Information Sharing (IRIS) for studies on the epidemiology of hypertension, and hypertension services for PLHIV in SSA. Twenty-six articles were identified for the review, with 150,886 participants; weighted mean of age 37.5 years and female proportion of 62.6%. The pooled prevalence was 19.6% (95% confidence interval [CI], 16.6%, 22.5%); hypertension awareness was 28.4% (95% CI, 15.5%, 41.3%), and hypertension control was 13.4% (95% CI, 4.7%, 22.1%). HIV-related factors like CD4 count, viremia, and antiretroviral therapy regimen were not consistently associated with prevalent hypertension. However, high body mass index (BMI) above 25 kg/m(2)Aÿ[odds ratio: 1.64, 95% CI (1.26, 2.02)] and age above 45 years [odds ratio: 1.44, 95% CI (1.08, 1.79)] were associated with prevalent hypertension. Even when PLHIV on ART were more likely to be screened for hypertension and monitored, there was infrequent screening and treatment of hypertension in most HIV clinics. Most studies recommended integrating of HIV and hypertension services. We report a high prevalence of hypertension in a relatively young population of PLHIV with suboptimal screening, treatment, and control of hypertension. We recommend strategies to integrate HIV and hypertension services.


Isaac Derick K, Khan Z




  • Epidemiology and Determinants of Health
    • Epidemiology
  • Population(s)
    • General HIV+ population
  • Co-morbidities
    • Other


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