Proteomics and metabolomics of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders: A systematic review


HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) are common features of the effect of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 within the central nervous system (CNS). The underlying neuropathophysiology of HAND is incompletely known. Furthermore, there are no markers to effectively predict or stratify the risk of HAND. Recent advancements in the fields of proteomics and metabolomics have shown promise in addressing these concerns, however, it is not clear if these approaches may provide new insight into pathways and markers related to HAND. We therefore conducted a systematic review of studies using proteomic and/or metabolomic approaches in the aim of identifying pathways or markers associated with neurocognitive impairment in people living with HIV (PLWH). Thirteen studies were eligible, including 11 proteomic and 2 metabolomic investigations of HIV-positive clinical samples (cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), brain tissue, and serum). Across varying profiling techniques and sample types, the majority of studies found an association of markers with neurocognitive function in PLWH. These included metabolic marker myo-inositol and proteomic markers superoxide dismutase, gelsolin, afamin, sphingomyelin, and ceramide. Certain markers were found to be dysregulated across various sample types. Afamin and gelsolin overlapped in studies of blood and CSF and sphingomyelin and ceramide overlapped in studies of CSF and brain tissue. The association of these markers with neurocognitive functioning may indicate the activity of certain pathways, potentially those related to the underlying neuropathophysiology of HAND


Williams ME, Naudé PJ, van der Westhuizen FH




  • Population(s)
    • General HIV+ population
  • Mental Health
    • Neurocognitive disorders


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