Relationship of sporotrichosis and infected patients with HIV-AIDS: An actual systematic review
BACKGROUND: Sporotrichosis is a fungal infection that can affect both humans and animals, caused by a species of thermo-dimorphic fungi of the genus Sporothrix. This pathology can be acquired by subcutaneous traumatic inoculation through contact with contaminated plants, soil or decomposing organic matter, and/or by inhalation of conidia. The infection can progress to chronic skin infection, or it can even spread to blood vessels, lymph, muscles, bones, and other organs, such as the lungs and nervous system. Those disseminated types are usually associated with cellular immunodeficiency and infection by inhalation, which explains why people living with human immunodeficiency virus (PLHIV) get infected in such a manner. This virus changes the natural history of sporotrichosis, producing a greater fungal load. METHODS: The search was carried out in three databases: Pubmed, Scopus, and Scielo. Eligible articles were considered as those that described sporotrichosis in patients infected with HIV-AIDS, as well as case series. RESULTS: A total of 24 articles were selected, with a sum of 37 patients with sporotrichosis and HIV infection. Of these patients, 31 came from Brazil, two from the United States, one from South Africa, one from Bangladesh, and two from an unspecified region. Regarding epidemiology, a predominance of the male sex was found in 28 of the 37 cases (75.6%), while nine were female (24.3%). CONCLUSIONS: Sporotrichosis infection continues to present in a more severe and disseminated way among HIV-positive subjects with lower CD4(+) counts.
Pinto-Almazán R, Sandoval-Navarro KA, Damián-Magaña EJ, Arenas R, Fuentes-Venado CE, Zárate-Segura PB, Martínez-Herrera E, Rodríguez-Cerdeira C
- Epidemiology and Determinants of Health
- General HIV+ population