Risks of Type 2 diabetes among older people living with HIV: A scoping review


Background: The effectiveness of antiretroviral therapy has enabled people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) (PLWH) to live longer. With this longevity, there is the risk of developing age-related chronic conditions like Type 2 diabetes. Older PLWH have an increased risk of Type 2 diabetes mellitus (Type 2 DM) because of the natural physiological processes of ageing and risks posed by HIV infection and antiretroviral therapy use. The purpose of this scoping review is to describe risk factors associated with the development of Type 2 DM among older PLWH.

Methods: The study adopted a framework for scoping reviews. The first step identified the research question, followed by identifying studies from three databases: PubMed, Mendeley and Cochrane Library. A total of 618 nonduplicate studies were screened, with a final selection of 15 full-text studies from 2012 to 2022. Data were extracted using the Souza (2010) data extraction tool and analysed numerically and with thematic content analysis.

Results: Most studies were from Italy, with 60% being cross-sectional studies. On thematic analysis, the risks associated with Type 2 DM among older PLWH were long duration of HIV infection; the use of older-generation antiretroviral therapy; a high body mass index; the presence of hypertension and a lack of knowledge on modifiable risk factors for Type 2 DM.

Conclusion: The identification of the risks that increase the likelihood of Type 2 DM among older PLWH facilitates effective screening and focused health education for older PLWH to reduce the development of Type 2 DM.Contribution: The findings of this study of excess risks of Type 2 DM specific to older PLWH complement risk factors of Type 2 DM in the general population. These excess risks facilitate case finding of older PLWH at risk of Type 2 DM especially in primary healthcare settings.


Mhlanga NL, Netangaheni TR




  • Population(s)
    • Older adults (>50 years)
    • General HIV+ population
  • Co-morbidities
    • Other


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