Risky sexual practice and associated factors among people living with HIV/AIDS receiving antiretroviral therapy in Ethiopia: Systematic review and meta-analysis


BACKGROUND: The risky sexual behavior of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) may impose a risk of transmitting the disease to their partners and increase Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) co-infection. This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to determine the pooled prevalence of risky sexual behavior and associated factors among PLWHA receiving [Antiretroviral Therapy (ART)] in Ethiopia. METHODS: To identify both published and unpublished research articles, systematic searches were performed in PubMed, HINARI, Medline, Science Direct, and Google Scholar databases. The review was carried out following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guideline. Cross-sectional studies reporting the prevalence of risky sexual practice and its associated factors among PLWHA receiving ART in Ethiopia were included. Two authors independently extracted all necessary data using a standardized data extraction format prepared in Microsoft Excel and exported to STATA version 14 statistical software for further analyses. The Cochrane Q test statistics and I2 test were used to assess the heterogeneity of the studies. Since the included studies exhibited considerable heterogeneity, the random-effects meta-analysis model was computed to estimate the pooled prevalence of risky sexual practice which was determined by dividing the total number of PLWHA with risky sexual practice practices by the total number of PLWHA on ART in the study and multiplied by 100. Furthermore, pooled odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) was determined for the association between determinant factors and risky sexual practice. RESULT: In this study, 2351 articles were identified from different databases, and fifteen articles were selected for final systematic review and meta-analysis. In Ethiopia, the pooled prevalence of risky sexual practices was 43.56% (95% confidence interval (CI):35.51, 51.62). Discussion about safe sex with sexual partner/s [AOR = 0.26, 95% CI: 0.08, 0.92] and having multiple sexual partners [AOR = 1.90, 95% CI: 0.53, 6.84] were factors significantly associated with risky sexual practice in Ethiopia. CONCLUSION: A significant proportion of respondents engaged in risky sexual practices. Multiple sexual partners and a lack of discussion about safe sex are linked to a higher prevalence of the risky sexual practice in Ethiopia. It is critical to raise awareness about safe sexual practices during health education and counselling services and to encourage clients to freely discuss safer sex practices with their sexual partner/s at their antiretroviral therapy (ART) appointments as part of their follow-up care.


Hareru HE, Kaso AW, Ashuro Z, Mareg M




  • Epidemiology and Determinants of Health
    • Epidemiology
  • Population(s)
    • General HIV+ population
  • Prevention, Engagement and Care Cascade
    • Engagement and Care Cascade
    • Prevention
  • Engagement and Care Cascade
    • Treatment
  • Prevention
    • Sexual risk behaviour


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