SARS-CoV-2 vaccine immunogenicity for people living with HIV: A systematic review and meta-analysis


Background: Previous publications on the immunogenicity of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) vaccines in people living with HIV (PLWH) have reported inconsistent results. Additionally, a meta-analysis investigating the immunogenicity in PLWH after the third SARS-CoV-2 vaccine dose is lacking. In this article we aim to provide a systematic review and a meta-analysis studying the immunogenicity of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines in PLWH and to identify potential drivers for antibody response in PLWH.

Methods: We used three databases (PubMed, Embase and Web of Science) to conduct our review. Studies with information on numbers of PLWH producing immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies or neutralizing antibodies were included.

Results: The meta-analysis included 59 studies and illustrated a pooled serological response of 87.09% in the 10 343 PLWH after they received a SARS-CoV-2 vaccine. High CD4 T-cell counts and low viral load indicated that the study populations had HIV that was well treated, despite varying in location. The pooled effect increased to 91.62% for 8053 PLWH when excluding studies that used inactivated vaccines (BBIBP-CorV and CoronaVac). For the third vaccine dose, the pooled effect was 92.35% for 1974 PLWH. Additionally, weighted linear regression models demonstrated weak relationships between CD4 T-cell count, percentages of people with undetectable HIV load, and age compared with the percentages of PLWH producing a serological response. However, more research is needed to determine the effect of those factors on SARS-CoV-2 vaccine immunogenicity in PLWH.

Conclusion: SARS-CoV-2 vaccines show a favourable effect on immunogenicity in PLWH. However, the results are not ideal. This meta-analysis suggests that a third SARS-CoV-2 vaccine dose and good HIV treatment procedures are vital to induce a good immunogenicity in PLWH.


Søndergaard MH, Thavarajah JJ, Henson HC, Wejse CM




  • Population(s)
    • General HIV+ population
  • Prevention, Engagement and Care Cascade
    • Prevention
  • Prevention
    • Biomedical interventions
  • Co-infections
    • Other


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