Severity of COVID-19 manifestations in HIV patients: A systematic review and meta-analysis


OBJECTIVE: The incidence of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic among people living with HIV (PLWH) is experiencing major increases. This demographic is vulnerable due to compromised immune function, but the individuals are subjected to antiretroviral therapy (ART), which shows potential as a treatment for the pandemic. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the severity of various forms of COVID-19 in PLWH as opposed to the general population. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study followed PRISMA guidelines and included a systematic review of literature from Pubmed, Science Direct, and Cochrane Library, comprising English-language articles from 2019 to 2022. This study included articles discussing HIV and COVID-19 case prevalence data by severity. A random effect model was used to demonstrate the pooled prevalence of COVID-19 among PLWH, as well as the prevalence of moderate and critical severity of COVID-19 among PLWH. The Joanna Briggs Institute checklist was used to assess the quality of studies. This study is registered in INPLASY No. INPLASY2023100063. RESULTS: Out of a total of 1,965 articles relevant to the specified keyword combination, 13 articles conformed with inclusion and exclusion criteria. For HIV and non-HIV COVID-19 patients, the mean age was 52.98 ± 6.45 years and 55.84 ± 9.73 years, respectively. Approximately 73% of HIV COVID-19 patients were male. Symptoms among PLWH included fever (57%), cough (48.9%), and shortness of breath (37%). The pooled prevalence of COVID-19 among PLWH was 3.0% (95% CI, 1.0–8.5%), with critical, moderate, and mild severity in 4.8% (95% CI, 1.6–13.3%), 24.4% (95% CI, 1.9–29.8%), and 9.9% (95% CI, 1.9–38%), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: PLWHs and HIV-negative individuals showed comparable rates and intensity of COVID-19. ART users exhibited immunological health comparable to immunocompetent people, demonstrating the essential role of ART in reducing the severity and mortality of PLWH with COVID-19.


Alam A, Soeroto AA, Susilohadi RA, Chandra LA




  • Epidemiology and Determinants of Health
    • Epidemiology
  • Population(s)
    • General HIV+ population
  • Co-infections
    • Other


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