Sex differences in non-AIDS comorbidities among people with human immunodeficiency virus


Women are grossly underrepresented in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) clinical and translational research. This is concerning given that people with HIV (PWH) are living longer, and thus accumulating aging-related non-AIDS comorbidities (NACMs); emerging evidence suggests that women are at higher risk of NACM development and progression compared with men. It is widely recognized that women vs men have greater immune activation in response to many viruses, including HIV-1; this likely influences sex-differential NACM development related to differences in HIV-associated chronic inflammation. Furthermore, many sociobehavioral factors that contribute to aging-related NACMs are known to differ by sex. The objectives of this review were to (1) synthesize sex-stratified data on 4 NACMs among PWH: bone disease, cardiovascular disease, metabolic dysfunction, and neurocognitive impairment; (2) evaluate the characteristics of key studies assessing sex differences in NACMs; and (3) introduce potential biological and psychosocial mechanisms contributing to emerging trends in sex-differential NACM risk and outcomes among PWH.


Pond RA, Collins LF, Lahiri CD




  • Population(s)
    • Women
    • General HIV+ population
  • Mental Health
    • Neurocognitive disorders
  • Co-morbidities
    • Cardiovascular
    • Age related disorders
    • Other


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