Strategies to increase HIV testing among MSM: A synthesis of the literature


More than 30 years into the HIV epidemic, men who have sex with men (MSM) continue to be disproportionately impacted. It is estimated that worldwide nearly half of MSM infected with HIV are unaware of their status, making HIV testing along with early linkage to care crucial to HIV prevention efforts. However, there remain significant barriers to HIV testing among MSM, due largely to complex issues of layered stigma that deter MSM from accessing traditional, clinic-based testing. We conducted a review and synthesis of the literature on strategies to increase uptake of HIV testing among MSM. We found that social network-based strategies, community-based testing, HIV self-testing, and modifications to the traditional clinic-based model can effectively reach a subset of MSM, but success was often context-specific and there are significant gaps in evidence. We provide recommendations for increasing HIV testing rates and status awareness among MSM


Campbell CK, Lippman SA, Moss N, Lightfoot M




  • Determinants of Health
    • Social support
    • Stigma/discrimination
  • Population(s)
    • Men who have sex with men
  • Testing
    • Testing
  • Health Systems
    • Delivery arrangements


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