Structural interventions for HIV prevention and care among US men who have sex with men: A systematic review of evidence, gaps, and future priorities


The preponderance of HIV interventions have been behavioral, targeting individual, dyadic, or group dynamics. However, structural-level interventions are required to decrease HIV transmission and increase engagement in care, especially for men who have sex with men (MSM), particularly Black and Latinx MSM. A systematic literature review was conducted to assess the current state of structural interventions; only two studies detailing structural interventions related to HIV for Black and Latinx MSM in the US were identified. An additional 91 studies which discussed structural-level barriers to optimal HIV outcomes among MSM, yet which did not directly evaluate a structural intervention, were also identified. While this paucity of findings was discouraging, it was not unexpected. Results of the systematic review were used to inform guidelines for the implementation and evaluation of structural interventions to address HIV among MSM in the U.S. These include deploying specific interventions for multiply marginalized individuals, prioritizing the deconstruction of structural stigma, and expanding the capacity of researchers to evaluate “natural” policy-level structural interventions through a standardization of methods for rapid evaluative response, and through universal application of sex, sexual orientation, and gender identity demographic measures.


Phillips G, McCuskey D, Ruprecht MM, Curry CW, Felt D




  • Epidemiology and Determinants of Health
    • Determinants of Health
  • Determinants of Health
    • Housing
    • Employment
    • Stigma/discrimination
  • Population(s)
    • Men who have sex with men
    • Children or Youth (less than 18 years old)
    • Ethnoracial communities
    • General HIV+ population
    • General HIV- population
  • Prevention, Engagement and Care Cascade
    • Prevention
  • Prevention
    • Biomedical interventions
  • Testing
    • Testing


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