Systematic review of the impact of protease inhibitor-based combination antiretroviral therapy on renal transplant outcomes in recipients living with HIV infection


Advances in Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) treatment including combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) have transformed HIV into a chronic condition. Kidney diseases cause morbidity and mortality in patients living with HIV (PLWH), though cART has permitted kidney transplants with acceptable post-transplant graft and patient survival. Risk of allograft rejection remains high, which may be related to interactions between cART, specifically protease inhibitors (PI), and immunosuppressants prescribed post-transplant. This systematic review evaluates renal transplant outcomes in PLWH treated with PI- vs. non-PI-based cART. A search strategy was generated with terms related to renal transplant, HIV, and cART and run on PubMed, Embase, Scopus, and Cochrane. Studies were evaluated using PRISMA guidelines on Covidence by two reviewers, then evaluated for bias. Of 803 studies, 9 were included. Included papers were prospective or retrospective cohort studies or chart reviews of adult patients. Outcome measures included acute graft rejection, graft survival, and patient survival. One study had significant results demonstrating that PI-based therapy was correlated with increased graft rejection rates. Two studies demonstrated significant graft survival benefit to non-PI-based therapy while one demonstrated significant benefit to PI-based therapy. Two studies found significant patient survival benefit to non-PI-based therapy. For each outcome measure, remaining data suggested improved outcomes with non-PI-based therapies without achieving statistical significance. The results demonstrate superior outcomes in PLWH taking non-PI-based cART, though the paucity of significant results suggests that PLWH who require PI-based cART for virological control may continue their regimen safely post-kidney transplant.


Milosh B, Bugaighis M, Cervia JS




  • Population(s)
    • General HIV+ population
  • Prevention, Engagement and Care Cascade
    • Engagement and Care Cascade
  • Engagement and Care Cascade
    • Treatment


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