The association between physical frailty and injurious falls and all-cause mortality as negative health outcomes in people living with HIV: A systematic review and meta-analysis


Objectives: Physical frailty is one of the major concerns among older people living with HIV (PLWH). This meta-analysis aimed to explore the association between physical frailty and negative health outcomes among PLWH.

Methods: We systematically searched six electronic databases including PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, the Cochrane Library, and Chinese databases up to April 10, 2022, for studies examining the association between physical frailty and risk of negative health outcomes among PLWH. Risk ratios (RRs), odds ratios, and hazard ratios with 95% CIs were extracted, and meta-analyses were conducted by using a fixed or random-effects model.

Results: In total, 10 studies incorporating 7755 HIV-seropositive patients (mean age 49.4 years) were included in the meta-analysis. Overall, five studies with 3434 participants reported the effect of physical frailty on falls. Results showed that physical frailty in HIV-seropositive individuals demonstrated a higher risk of future falls (pooled RR 3.74, 95% CI 1.42–9.86) compared with robust HIV-seropositive patients. In addition, a meta-analysis of five studies (4321 participants) reporting the frailty-mortality association showed that physical frailty was significantly associated with a higher risk of all-cause mortality (RR 1.70, 95% CI 1.32–2.19) among PLWH.

Conclusion: Physical frailty is a significant risk factor for negative health outcomes in PLWH, including falls and all-cause mortality, underscoring the need for routine screening and early intervention of physical frailty among PLWH.


Zhou Q, He J, Yang X, Yin H, Zhang Z, He N




  • Epidemiology and Determinants of Health
    • Epidemiology
  • Population(s)
    • General HIV+ population
  • Co-morbidities
    • Other


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