The dynamic role of the IL-33/ST2 axis in chronic viral-infections: Alarming and adjuvanting the immune response


UNLABELLED: Interleukin 33 (IL-33), a member of the IL-1 family, is constitutively expressed in epithelial and in endothelial cells at barrier sites, acting as a danger signal and adjuvanting the immune response following tissue damage and infection. Originally implicated in allergy, IL-33 is also known to be involved in innate and adaptive immune responses by enhancing natural killer, Th1, and CD4 and CD8 T-cell functions. The nature of the antiviral immune response orchestrated by IL-33 depends on the site of infection, the duration of the disease and the cytokine milieu. In this review, we focus on the distinctive contribution of IL-33 as an anti-infective and proinflammatory cytokine in response to cell death and viral infections. The dynamic role of IL-33 in the acute and chronic phases of infection with HIV, hepatitis B and C viruses, and with CMV is highlighted. This review will also discuss the potential immunotherapeutic and adjuvant roles of IL-33. SEARCH STRATEGY AND SELECTION CRITERIA: English language, indexed publications in PubMed were searched using combinations of following key words: “interleukin-33”, “IL-33”, “suppression of tumorigenicity 2″, ST2”, “sST2”, “HIV”, “HBV”, “HCV”, “CMV”, “HPV”, “immunotherapy” and “vaccine”. Except for seminal studies, only articles published between 2010 and 2016 were included


Mehraj V, Ponte R, Routy JP




  • Population(s)
    • General HIV+ population
    • Other
  • Co-infections
    • Hepatitis B, C
    • Other


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