The effect of HIV and mpox co-infection on clinical outcomes: Systematic review and meta-analysis


Introduction: Co-infection with HIV and mpox is a significant issue for public health because of the potential combined impact on clinical outcomes. However, the existing literature lacks a comprehensive synthesis of the available evidence. The purpose of this meta-analysis is to provide insight into the impact of HIV and mpox co-infection on clinical outcomes.

Methods: We systematically searched major electronic databases (PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Central, and Web of Science) for pertinent studies published up to June 2023. Included were studies that described the clinical outcomes of people who had both mpox and HIV. We performed the analysis using OpenMeta and STATA 17 software.

Results: With an overall number of participants of 35 207, 21 studies that met the inclusion criteria were considered. The greatest number of the studies (n = 10) were cohort designs, with three being cross-sectional and eight being case series studies. The meta-analysis found that people who had both HIV and mpox had a higher hospitalization rate than those who only had mpox (odds ratio [OR] 1.848; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.918-3.719, p = 0.085, I2 = 60.19%, p = 0.020). Furthermore, co-infected patients had higher mortality rates than those who did not have HIV co-infection (OR 3.887; 95% CI 2.272-6.650, p < 0.001). Meta-regression analysis showed that CD4 levels can significantly predict the risk of hospitalization (p = 0.016) and death (p = 0.031).

Discussion: HIV causes immunosuppression, making it difficult for the body to mount an effective immune response against pathogens such as mpox. Individuals who are co-infected are at a higher risk of severe disease and death, according to our findings. Although hospitalization rates did not differ significantly between the two groups, it is critical to prioritize interventions and improve management strategies tailored specifically for people living with HIV.

Conclusion: This meta-analysis provides substantial evidence that HIV and mpox co-infection has a negative impact on clinical outcomes. Co-infected individuals had higher hospitalization and significantly higher mortality rates. These findings highlight the significance of early diagnosis, prompt treatment initiation, and effective management strategies for people living with HIV and mpox.


Taha AM, Elrosasy A, Mahmoud AM, Saed SAA, Moawad WAE, Hamouda E, Nguyen D, Tran VP, Pham HT, Sah S, Barboza JJ, Sah R




  • Epidemiology and Determinants of Health
    • Epidemiology
  • Population(s)
    • General HIV+ population
  • Co-infections
    • Other


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