The effect of protease inhibitors-based antiretroviral therapy on serum/plasma interleukin-6 levels among PLHIV: A systematic review and meta-analysis


Men who have sex with men (MSM) often change sexual behaviors following HIV diagnosis. This systematic review examined such changes, including sero-adaptive behaviors (i.e., deliberate safer-sex practices to reduce transmission risk) to better understand the magnitude of their association with HIV diagnosis. We searched four databases (1996–2017) and reviewed references from other systematic reviews. We included studies conducted in the United States that compared sexual behavior among HIV-infected “aware” versus “unaware” MSM. We meta-analytically pooled RRs and associated 95% confidence intervals (CI) using random-effects models, and assessed risk of bias and evidence quality. Twenty studies reported k = 131 effect sizes on sexual practices outcomes, most of which reported changes in unprotected sex (k = 85), and on sex with at-risk partners (k = 76); 11 reported sero-adaptive behaviors. Unprotected anal intercourse with an HIV-uninfected/unknown-status partner was less likely among aware MSM (insertive position: k = 2, RR 0.26, 95% CI 0.17, 0.41; receptive position: k = 2, RR 0.53, 95% CI 0.37, 0.77). Risk of not always serosorting among aware MSM (k = 3) was RR = 0.92 (0.83, 1.02). Existing evidence, although low-quality, suggests that HIV-infected MSM tend to adopt safer sexual practices once aware of their diagnosis. Variation in reporting of outcomes limits their comparability. Sero-adaptive behavior data are sparse.


Ashuro AA, Zhang SC, Wang T, Chu QS, Fu YS, Fan YG, Ye DQ




  • Epidemiology and Determinants of Health
    • Epidemiology
  • Population(s)
    • General HIV+ population
  • Prevention, Engagement and Care Cascade
    • Engagement and Care Cascade
  • Engagement and Care Cascade
    • Treatment


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