The twin epidemics: Prevalence of TB/HIV co-infection and its associated factors in Ethiopia; A systematic review and meta-analysis


BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis and HIV/AIDS are the major public health problems in many parts of the world particularly in resource limited countries like Ethiopia. Although studies have been conducted on the prevalence and associated factors of TB / HIV co-infection in Ethiopia, there is no comprehensive data on the magnitude and risk factors at a national and regional levels. Therefore, this review is aimed to summarize the prevalence of TB /HIV co-infection in Ethiopia using meta-analysis based on a systematic review of published articles & grey literatures. METHODS: To conduct this systematic review and meta-analysis, major databases such as Pub Med, Google scholar, CINAHL, Africa Journals Online and Google were systematically searched using search terms. PRISMA guideline was followed in the study. Two authors extracted all necessary data using a standardized data extraction format, and analysis was done using STATA version 11. A Statistical heterogeneity across the studies was evaluated by using Cochran’s Q test and I2 statistic. The pooled effect size was conducted in the form of prevalence and associations were measured using odds ratio. Moreover, the univariate meta regression was performed by considering the sample size to determine potential sources of heterogeneity. The Egger’s weighted regression and Begg’s rank correlation tests were used to assess potential publication biases. RESULTS: This meta-analysis included 21 studies with a total of 12,980 participants. The pooled prevalence of TB / HIV Co-infection was 25.59% (95% CI (20.89%-30.29%). A significant association was found between low CD4 counts (OR: 3.53; 95% CI: 1.55, 8.06), advanced WHO stage (OR: 6.81; 95% CI: 3.91, 11.88) and TB/ HIV/AIDS Co-infection. CONCLUSION: This finding revealed that the magnitude of TB /HIV co-infection in Ethiopia is increasing and deserves special attention. Low CD4 count and advanced WHO stage are contributing factors for dual infection. Establishing mechanisms such as Conducting surveillance to determine HIV burden among TB patients and TB burden among HIV patients, and intensifying the three I’s (Intensive case finding, INH Preventive Therapy and Infection control) should be routine work of clinicians. Moreover, early screening & treatment should be provided to those patients with low CD4 count and advanced WHO stage


Tesfaye B, Alebel A, Gebrie A, Zegeye A, Tesema C, Kassie B




  • Epidemiology and Determinants of Health
    • Epidemiology
  • Population(s)
    • General HIV+ population
  • Co-infections
    • Tuberculosis


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