Trends and emerging directions in HIV risk and prevention research in the Philippines: A systematic review of the literature


BACKGROUND: The Philippines is experiencing one of the fastest growing epidemics globally. Evidence-based public health policies are needed. To describe the public health literature on HIV risk groups and prevention approaches in the Philippines, we reviewed published empirical studies with HIV-related outcomes. METHODS: Based on an a priori systematic review protocol, we searched PubMed, PsycINFO and CINAHL databases for quantitative studies conducted in the Philippines that reported on HIV risk groups factors and interventions to prevent HIV. The search included studies published as of April 2018. RESULTS: We identified 755 records, screened 699 unique titles and abstracts, and conducted full text review of 122 full reports of which 51 articles met inclusion criteria. The majority were cross-sectional studies describing HIV and STI prevalence and risk factors in samples recruited from the Philippines. Four HIV prevention programs conducted in the Philippines were identified, all of which reported improvements on HIV knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors. Overall, female sex workers (FSWs) constituted the primary study population, and few studies reported data from men who have sex with men (MSM), people who inject drugs (PWIDs), and youth. No studies reported on transgender populations. Most studies were focused on examining condom use-related outcomes and STI history, few had biomarkers for HIV, and none addressed biomedical HIV prevention strategies. CONCLUSION: This review identifies an agenda for future HIV research that is needed to address the growing and shifting nature of the HIV epidemic in the Philippines


Restar A, Nguyen M, Nguyen K, Adia A, Nazareno J, Yoshioka E, Hernandez L, Operario D




  • Epidemiology and Determinants of Health
    • Epidemiology
  • Population(s)
    • Men who have sex with men
    • Women
    • Children or Youth (less than 18 years old)
    • People who use drugs
    • Sex workers
    • General HIV+ population
    • General HIV- population
  • Prevention
    • Sexual risk behaviour
    • Education/media campaigns
  • Substance Use
    • Nonmedicinal drugs
  • Co-infections
    • Hepatitis B, C
    • Chlamydia
    • Gonorrhea
    • Other


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