Tri-substituted 1,3,5-triazine-based analogs as effective HIV-1 non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs): A systematic review


Non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) have significantly impacted the HIV-1 wild-type due to their high specificity and superior potency. As well as different combinations of NNRTIs have been used on clinically approved combining highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) to resist the growth of HIV-1 and decrease the mortality rate of HIV/AIDS. Although the feeble strength against the drug-resistant mutant strains and the long-term damaging effects have been reducing the effectiveness of HAART, it could be a crucial challenge to develop novel Anti-HIV leads with a vital mode of action and the least side effects. The extensive chemical reactivity and the diverse chemotherapeutic applications of the 1,3,5-triazine have provided a wide scope of research in medicinal chemistry via a structural modification. In this review, we focused on the Anti-HIV profile of the tri-substituted s-triazine derivatives with structure-based features and also discussed the active mode of action to evaluate the significant findings. The tri-substituted 1,3,5-triazine derivatives have been found more promising to inhibit the growth of the drug-sensitive and drug-resistant variants of HIV-1, especially HIV-1 wild-type, HIV-1 K103N/Y181C, and HIV-1 Tyr181Cys. It has been observed that these derivatives have interacted with the enzyme protein residues via a significant   –  interaction and hydrogen bonding to resist the proliferation of the viral genomes. Further, the SAR and the active binding modes are critically described and highlight the role of structural variations with functional groups along with the binding affinity of targeted enzymes, which may be beneficial for rational drug discovery to develop highly dynamic Anti-HIV agents.


Khalifa Z, Patel AB




  • Population(s)
    • General HIV+ population


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