Utilization of provider-initiated HIV testing and counselling in Ethiopia: A systematic review and meta-analysis


Background: Provider-initiated HIV testing, and counseling (PITC) is a service in which health professionals provide HIV testing to all patients in health facilities. Provider-initiated HIV testing, and counseling is an important opportunity for early screening of individuals, and it is fundamental for both HIV treatment and prevention. Although there are studies conducted in different parts of Ethiopia, their findings are variable. Therefore, this systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to summarize the pooled utilization of PITC in Ethiopia.

Method: All studies conducted on utilization of provider-initiated HIV testing and counseling at outpatient departments (OPD), inpatient departments (IPD), antenatal clinic care (ANC), and tuberculosis (TB) clinics in Ethiopia are eligible for these meta-analyses. A systematic search of the literature was conducted by the authors to identify all relevant primary studies. The databases used to search for studies were PubMed, Science Direct, POPLINE, HENARI, Google Scholar, and Scopus. The extracted data were imported into STATA version 14 software for statistical analysis. The risk of bias was assessed using the Joana Briggs Institute (JBI) criteria for prevalence studies. The heterogeneity among all included studies was assessed by I2 statistics and the Cochran’s Q test. Pooled utilization along with its corresponding 95% CI was presented using a forest plot.

Result: About 1738 studies were retrieved from initial electronic searches using international databases and Google, and a total of 10,676 individual clients were included in the meta-analysis. The pooled utilization of PITC in Ethiopia using the random effects model was estimated to be 78.9% (95% CI 73.87–83.85) with a significant level of heterogeneity (I2 = 98.5%; P < 0.001). Subgroup analysis conducted on PITC showed the highest percentage among studies conducted in Addis Ababa (93.5%), while lower utilization was identified from a study conducted in the Tigray Region (35%).

Limitation of the study: The drawbacks of this review and meta-analysis were being reported with significant heterogeneity, and the protocol was not registered.


Atlaw D, Sahiledengle B, Degno S, Mamo A, Gudisa Z, Zenbaba D, Shiferaw Z, Gezahegn H




  • Population(s)
    • General HIV- population
  • Testing
    • Testing


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