Worldwide occurrence of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders and its associated factors: A systematic review and meta-analysis


BACKGROUND: HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders are common in people living with HIV/AIDS and affect the adherence of patients to prescriptions, activities of daily living, and quality of life of patients. However, there is a lack of summative evidence in the area. The present meta-analysis was therefore addressing this gap. METHODS: We did our electronic search in Psych-Info, EMBASE, Scopus, and PubMed. The retrieved articles were stored with the endnote reference manager and data was extracted using Meta-XL version 5.3. The quality of studies was evaluated with the modified Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS). A random-effect model and STATA-16 were used to compute the average estimate of HAND. Heterogeneity was weighed with I(2) statistics. A sensitivity analysis and subgroup analysis were employed. The existence/nonexistence of a publication bias was checked with the Eggers test of publication bias. RESULTS: The average prevalence of HAND was 50.41% (95% CI: 45.56, 55.26). The average estimate of HAND in Europe was found to be 50.015% whereas in Africa, Asia, and the United States of America (USA) it was 49.566, 52.032, and 50.407% respectively. The prevalence of HAND in studies that used the HIV Dementia Scale (IHDS) was 36.883% and 59.956% at cutoff points of IHDS <9.5 and IHDS <10 respectively. Besides, the estimated average of HAND with the global dementia scale (GDS) was 40.766%. The prevalence of HAND in cross-sectional, cohort, and case-control studies was 49.52, 54.087, and 44.45% in that order. Socio-demographic variables; low level of education and older age, clinical and HIV related variables; the advanced stage of the illness and CD4 count of 500 cells/dl or less and psychological variables such as comorbidity of depression increases the risk of HAND. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders was about 50.41%. Low level of education and older age, clinical and HIV related variables such as the advanced stage of the illness and CD4 count of 500 cells/dl or less, and comorbidity of depression were associated with HIV associated neurocognitive disorders. Public health interventions for HIV patients should target these essential problems.


Zenebe Y, Necho M, Yimam W, Akele B




  • Epidemiology and Determinants of Health
    • Epidemiology
  • Population(s)
    • General HIV+ population
  • Mental Health
    • Neurocognitive disorders


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