Worldwide prevalence of human papillomavirus among pregnant women: A systematic review and meta-analysis


Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the causative agent of cervical cancer and a suspected agent for ovarian and endometrial cancers in women. It is associated with adverse outcomes during pregnancy. To date, there is no estimate of the prevalence of HPV infection in pregnant women at the regional and global levels. This study evaluated the global prevalence of HPV infection based on all observational studies that had reported the prevalence of HPV among pregnant women between January 1980 and December 2021 in PubMed/MEDLINE, Scopus, Web of Science, Embase, and SciELO databases. We utilised a random-effect model to determine the global prevalence and related risk factors of HPV infection. Between-studies heterogeneity was assessed using I2 statistic. Moreover, subgroup and meta-regression analyses were employed to assess the source of heterogeneity and the relationship between HPV prevalence and socio-demographic factors, respectively. Among 144 eligible studies comprising 189 datasets, the overall prevalence rates of HPV at the 95% confidence interval (CI) were estimated as 30.38% (26.88%–33.99%), 17.81% (9.81%–27.46%), 32.1% (25.09%–39.67%), 2.26% (0.1%–8.08%) and 25.5% (23.3%–27.8%) in cervico-vaginal, placenta, serum, amniotic fluid and urine samples, respectively. The highest prevalence rates were estimated for countries in the African region, while countries in the European and Eastern Mediterranean regions showed the lowest prevalence rates. HPV-16 and -18 were the most prevalent isolated strains. The pregnant women living with HIV and those with pregnancy disorders had significantly higher prevalence rates than general pregnant women.


Ardekani A, Sepidarkish M, Mollalo A, Afradiasbagharani P, Rouholamin S, Rezaeinejad M, Farid-Mojtahedi M, Mahjour S, Almukhtar M, Nourollahpour Shiadeh M, Rostami A




  • Epidemiology and Determinants of Health
    • Epidemiology
  • Population(s)
    • Women
    • General HIV+ population
    • General HIV- population
  • Co-infections
    • Other


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